46 Hotlines
42 Countries
1 Mission

Facts & numbers
Age of the victims

Age of the victims

77% of CSAM assessed in 2020 depicted children under 13 years of age.

Victims are aged between 3 to 13 years.

The figures from 2020 show that the majority of victims are pre-pubescent.

Gender of victims

Gender of victims

93% of victims depicted in reports assessed during 2020 were girls and 5% were boys.

93% of victims were girls

Girls depicted in images and videos increased by 2% from 2019. Children of both genders were depicted in 2% of assessed reports.

World Wide Reporting Data

World Wide Reporting Data

Netherlands - 21%
Austria - 21%
United Kingdom - 12%
Canada - 10%
Colombia - 9%
Germany - 5%
Poland, United States, Ireland; each 3%
Czech Republic, Finland, each; 2%

World Wide Reporting Data

INHOPE has traced CSAM material to more than 60 countries, and of those INHOPE hotlines are present in 36 countries.

Read more on these facts in our Annual Report.

Site Types

Site Types

The pie chart shows the variety of sites used to store CSAM.

Site Types

In 2020, the data presented 9 different site types with the majority of material being found on the following:

Website 48%
Image host 24%
File host 13%

Reporting Patterns

Reporting Patterns

Number of exchanged content URLs: 1038268
Number of illegal content URLs: 267192

Number of Reports, Assessed Illegal

Exchanged content URLs – This is the number of URLs of individual media files e.g. video, images etc that were exchanged via ICCAM.

Illegal content URLs – This is the number of unique content URLs that were processed via ICCAM and assessed by analysts as being CSAM and thus illegal.

Good to know

Useful Documents

Annual Report 2020

A review of 2020, where we look at the INHOPE Network of Hotlines, the environment that it operates in and its global impact on CSAM.

For older reports - click here.

Luxembourg Guidelines

The Terminology Guidelines, dubbed the ‘Luxembourg Guidelines’ after their adoption in Luxembourg earlier this year, offer guidance on how to navigate the complex lexicon of terms commonly used relating to sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children. They aim to build consensus on key concepts in order to strengthen data collection and cooperation across agencies, sectors and countries.

Child Dignity Alliance - Technology Working Group Report

The Technology Working Group was charged with examining the role of technology in combatting the proliferation of online child sexual exploitation and abuse imagery.A focus of this report is on the need to dismantle the chief technical, legal and policy silos that are frustrating real collaboration among law enforcement, industry, government and the non-government sector.

Insights &
articles

What is Victim Identification?

Child Sexual Abuse Material (CSAM) is the evidence of a crime that has taken place. Investigators and victim identification specialists use this evidence to work out information about th (...)

What is Victim Identification?

New Hotline.ie helps individuals with nonconsensual images online

On September 2nd, Hotline.ie, the Irish national centre combatting illegal content online (est. 1999), has launched a new online service and reporting portal aimed at helping young peopl (...)

New Hotline.ie helps individuals with nonconsensual images online

What are Peer-to-Peer Networks? 

Peer-to-peer networks, commonly referred to as P2P networks, are a network of computers in which resources can be shared without requiring a separate server computer. All computers in th (...)

What are Peer-to-Peer Networks? 

Law enforcement capabilities in relation to child exploitation

In June 2021, the Australian Government’s Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement agreed to inquire into, and report on, law enforcement capabilities in relation to child expl (...)

Law enforcement capabilities in relation to child exploitation

Telefono Azzurro to present results with Doxa Kids on children’s rights in the digital environment

Within the framework of its Digital Citizenship Programme, Telefono Azzurro will shortly present the results of new research carried out in cooperation with Doxa Kids on children’s rig (...)

Telefono Azzurro to present results with Doxa Kids on children’s rights in the digital environment

Film and Publication Board helps to convict Child Pornography offender

The Film and Publication Board (FPB), content regulator in South Africa, notched up another successful conviction of a Child Sexual Abuse Material suspect. Working with law enforcement, (...)

Film and Publication Board helps to convict Child Pornography offender

Creating the Tool to get the job done – AviaTor Phase 2

Law Enforcement has more time to focus on victim identification and rescue when they use AviaTor. A tool that guarantees prioritisation of NCMEC reports and streamlines the process for o (...)

Creating the Tool to get the job done – AviaTor Phase 2

What is ESCAPE?

The ESCAPE project, funded by End Violence Against Children (EVAC) represents INHOPE's vision to put an eco-system in place ensuring that every industry stakeholder and each member of th (...)

What is ESCAPE?

What is the Model National Response?

Launched in 2015 by the WePROTECT Global Alliance, the Model National Response provides countries with a theoretical framework for coordinating a national response to online child sexual (...)

What is the Model National Response?

Site types used to share CSAM online

In our recently released Annual Report, we stated that websites have replaced image hosting sites as the site type on which INHOPE member hotlines most commonly find Child Sexual Abuse M (...)

Site types used to share CSAM online